De la imagen fotográfica a los orígenes pre-fotográficos

Por Carlos Sangiovanni.

 

Resulta simple definir la imagen como la aglomeración de formas identificables a partir de un objeto representado. Se nos hace más fácil aclarar su comprensión recurriendo a sus raíces filológicas que relacionan imagen con el sustantivo latino imago (figura, sombra, imitación) y con el griego eikon (icono, retrato), entendiéndose icono como: “todo signo que originariamente tiene semejanza con el objeto a que se refiere”(clásica terminología de Pierce, en Semiología).  

Dentro de los procesos de reproducciones de la imagen, la fotográfica envuelve al mundo contemporáneo. Con ello también llega el cuestionamiento de las realidades que muestran las iconografías fotográficas de este siglo. Si la imagen fotográfica se reconocía en pasado reciente como testimonio de realidad, el mundo digital se ha encargado de darle una visión y versión distinta; instituyó una nueva retórica, un discurso de lo imposible-posible representado por esa nueva imagen visual de la híper modernidad.

Nos vemos y hacemos que nos vean, con el uso y abuso de las tecnologías que nos brinda el momento. La fotografía ha sido tomada por las masas, que se regodean con ella como un “placer para la vista”, en ese juego erótico que caracteriza a la sociedad del Facebook. Millones de imágenes se toman en un segundo, para ese pacto voyerista con otros que nos observan y a quienes también contemplamos, en esa espiral egocéntrica y ante el gran espejo ciber espacial que nos distrae, haciéndonos olvidar realidades autenticas que no podemos maquillar. Llegar a este grado tecnológico de manipulación de la imagen en que se encuentra la sociedad digital, ha tenido estamentos históricos muchas veces ignorados o desconocidos de sus orígenes prefotográficos. Seguir leyendo ” De la imagen fotográfica a los orígenes pre-fotográficos”

Prints From 1950 To 1980 (Printmaking, Twentieth Century, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic).

made-in-copy-america-latina
Made in… América Latina. Collage and silkscreen 1976. Carlos Sangiovanni

COLLAZO-MATOS, Aristides. 1997. Ethno-Aesthetic Description And Political Interpretation Of Selected Spanish Caribbean Prints From 1950 To 1980 (Printmaking, Twentieth Century, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic). Degree: Ph.D. Institution: New York University 0146. Pages: 00317. Descriptor: Art History, History, Latin American Access # AAG9811714. Source: DAI, 58, no. 10A, (1997): 3756. (ABSTRACT: This research presents an examination and analysis of selected Spanish Caribbean printmaking art works for their aesthetic qualities and political contents. The purpose was to identify characteristics that may document a regional aesthetic affinity.—The method employed consists of techniques derived from ethnography, phenomenology and hermeneutics. Published material, interviews with art experts and artists provided information from inside the culture. Interviews with artists followed a dialectical hermeneutical approach guided by some principles from H. G. Gadamer’s hermeneutics theory.— An aesthetic analysis of 37 prints from Cuba, 34 from Puerto Rico and 13 from Dominican Republic was conducted following elements of the phenomenological method proposed by E. F. Kaelin. Each print is described first, followed by interpretation of possible meanings. Each analysis ends with a question the artist may be positing on his work.— The prints were found to fall into three categories, Realist Figurative, Non-Realist Figurative and Non-Figurative. The predominant category was Non-Realist Figurative.—Preferences for specific artistic mediums seem to be dominant in each decade. Relief prints in both woodcut and linoleum techniques are preferred during the fifties. Silkscreen is preferred in Puerto Rico and lithography in Cuba during the sixties. Intaglio is the preferred medium during the seventies and after. Collography and mixed media are more typical of the late eighties. The dominant medium in the three decades as a whole seems to be relief techniques.—– A cross-cultural analysis and comparison of invariants suggest that printmaking played an important role in the Spanish Caribbean from the sixties to the eighties and they function both as sociopolitical statements as well as aesthetic expressions. Even when artists are in different nations they express similar concerns, as observed in the prints by artists Carmelo Gonzalez, Lorenzo Homar, Alfredo Sosabravo, Antonio Martorell and Carlos Sangiovanni, among others.—Other significant fingings follow: It seems there exist an “art world” that considers thematic content meanings as part of the aesthetic content of an art work. During recent years, dominance of perceptual content is also observed, which occurs as artists are exposed to international artists trends.
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THESES AND DISSERTATIONS RELATED TO THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS-BOSTON